Understanding Truth and Falsehood; Tafsīr Suratl-Baqarah by Ibn Kathīr


Concerning His statement;

كَانَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَٰحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلنَّبِيِّۦنَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِٱلْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ فِيمَا ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِۚ وَمَا ٱخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْهُمُ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتُ بَغْيًۢا بَيْنَهُمْۖ فَهَدَى ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لِمَا ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِ مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

“Mankind were one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allah by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allah guides whom He wills to a Straight Path.” [Al-Baqarah, 213]

On the authority of Ibn ‘Abbās may Allāh be pleased with them both, he said: “There were ten generations between Nūh ﷺ and Ādam ﷺ, all of them upon the true Sharīah, then they differed, so Allāh sent Prophets giving glad tidings and as warners.”

He said: And likewise in the reading of Abdillāh:

(كَانَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَٰحِدَةً فَٱخْتَلَفُوا۟)

“Mankind were one community then they differed” [Al-Baqarah, 213]

▪️ They were all upon guidance, then they differed so Allāh sent Prophets, so the first of who He sent was Nūh ﷺ, and it is the correct opinion, and it is not that they were upon Kufr.
▪️ And He sent Messengers to solve these differing’s.
▪️ Ādam ﷺ was a Prophet spoken to and he was not a Messenger, as the first Prophet and Messenger sent was Nūh ﷺ.
▪️ Differing occurred upon knowledge and not upon ignorance, due to transgression.

(وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰب)َ

“And with them He sent the Scripture” [Al-Baqarah, 213]

I.e. After the proofs were established upon them, and nothing led them to doing that except transgression of one another.

(فَهَدَى ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟)

“Then Allah by His Leave guided those who believed”

On the authority of Al-A’mash, on the authority of Abī Sālih, on the authority of Abī Hurairah, he said: The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said: “We are the last but the first on the Day of Judgement, and we are the first whom will enter the Jannah, other than that they were given the Book before us, and we were given it after them, so they differed, so Allāh guided us to the truth of what they differed concerning, so this day that they differed concerning, Allāh guided us to it – he said: Friday – is for us and tomorrow for the Jews and after tomorrow for the Christians.”

▪️ The ruling of this Book is like all other Books which call to the Tawhīd of Allāh.

▪️ This Ummah is the Ummah of Muhammad ﷺ, Allāh chose for them the best of Prophets, and the best of Books, and the best of Days.

▪️ The wisdom behind sending the Prophets; Giving glad tidings and as warner’s.

▪️ The struggle and conflict between truth and falsehood was after those (first) ten generations. Differing has been decreed, not that it is legislated.

Benefit: Gold is not known except by fire, and the Oud (incense stick) is not known except by fire.


“by His Leave”

I.e. with His knowledge of them and for what reason Allāh guided them (Leave here is not with the meaning of command, the Jabariyyah are the ones who interperate it as command)

(وَٱللَّهُ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ)

“And Allah guides whom He wills”

I.e. from His creation.

(إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ)

“to a Straight Path”

I.e. He has the perfect wisdom and perfect proof.

And in the duā which has come in the narrations;

اللهم أرنا الحق حقا وارزقنا اتباعه، وأرنا الباطل باطلا وارزقنا اجتنابه، ولا تجعله ملتبسا علينا فنضل، واجعلنا للمتقين إماما

Allāhumma Arinā Al-Haqq Haqqan Warzuqnā I’ttibā’uhu, Wa Arinā Al-Bātil Bātilan Warzuqnā Ijtinābuhu, Walā Taj’aluhu Multabisan Alaynā Fanadhillu, Waj’alnā Lil Muttaqīna Imāma

“O Allāh show us the truth as the truth and grant us the following of it, and show us the falsehood as falsehood and grant us the abstaining from it, and do not make it confusing for us so we are caused to be misguided and make us an Imām for the pious.”

Is a good statement, principles fall underneath it.

Benefited from: Shaykh, the Allamah, the Trustworthy Advisor, Abu Abdirrahman Yahya bin Ali Al-Hajuri – may Allah preserve him

Source: https://t.me/sh_yahia_duroos/3129

Translated by: Abu ‘Abdillāh ‘Omar bin Yahya Al-‘Akawi