Hypocrite and a Believer; Tafsīr Suratl-Baqarah by Ibn Kathīr


Benefit:

Concerning His statement;

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَامِ (204) وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ(205) وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّةُ بِالْإِثْمِ ۚ فَحَسْبُهُ جَهَنَّمُ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ (206) وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ (207) يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ(208) فَإِن زَلَلْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

“And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you, in this worldly life, and he calls Allāh to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents. And when he turns away, his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allāh likes not mischief. And when it is said to him, “Fear Allāh”, he is led by arrogance to (more) crime. So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest! And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allāh. And Allāh is full of Kindness to (His) slaves. O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islam (by obeying all the rules and regulations of the Islamic religion) and follow not the footsteps of Shaitān. Verily! He is to you a plain enemy. Then if you slide back after the clear signs have come to you, then know that Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” [Al-Baqarah 204-10]

The (من) is for partiality.

(ألد الخصام)

“most quarrelsome of the opponents”

Because he is not contempt, swaying in between.

▪️ Do not be amazed at the well versed ones no matter how much their eloquence, as long as it doesn’t match with the evidence.

▪️ Abdullah bin Abi Mulaykah said: “I met around 30 companions of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ, all of them fearing for themselves hypocrisy.”

▪️ It is said it was revealed concerning Al-Akhnas bin Sharīq Ath-Thaqafī, and it is said Khabīb and those killed with him at Rajī’ and they cast blame of them, and it is said it is general concerning all the hypocrites, and all believers.

▪️ The story of Khabīb and other than him enter into it for it is general.

▪️ Al-Qurtubī said: “I pondered over it in the Quran and found that they are the hypocrites, so the verse is revealed concerning a man then it is general after, and the statement of Al-Qurtubi is Hasan Sahīh.

His statement

(وَيُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِي قَلْبِه)

“and he calls Allāh to witness as to that which is in his heart”

He portrays Islam to the people and contests with Allāh with what is in his heart of disbelief and hypocrisy.

His statement:

(وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَام)

“yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents.”

ِ Al-Alud linguistically is crooked

َ (وَتُنذِرَ بِهِۦ قَوْمًا لُّدًّا)

“And warn with it the Ludda (most quarrelsome) people.” [Al-Maryam, 97]

I.e. a crooked people.

• And the Hypocrites are crooked, and if they agree to a covenant they betray it and if they argue they are vile.

• Al-Jarh wa at-Ta’dīl (the science of disparaging and appraisal) concerning the Book of Allāh is (up kept) by one person or a group of people, and it could be a clear statement or by indication.

• Imām Al-Bukhāri said: Abu Āsim narrated to us, on the authority of Ibn Juraij, on the authority of Ibn Abī Mulaykah, on the authority of Ā’ishah may Allāh be pleased with her, on the authority of the Prophet ﷺ, he said: “Verily some men are the most quarrelsome of opponents towards Allāh.” I.e. the one who combines with his disputing crookedness, severe in quarreling, severe in crookedness.

His statement;

(وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ)

“And when he turns away, his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allāh likes not mischief.”

I.e it is the most crooked of statements, evil actions, his speech is lies, his actions are corrupt.

• And this is general speech: on any corruption in the earth, Allāh does not like it.

• Corruption by statement or by action or by creed, and the limbs, and the beginning steps of corruption….

• Mujāhid said: If corruption is sown in the land rain is prevented, so the crops and produce die. Ya’nī his actions corrupt the earth.

(وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَاد)

“and Allāh likes not mischief.”

I.e. He doesn’t love one whom this is his characteristic, nor the one whom this occurs from.

(وَيُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِي قَلْبِه)

“and he calls Allāh to witness as to that which is in his heart”

He portrays Islam to the people and contests with Allāh with what is in his heart of disbelief and hypocrisy.

His statement;

(وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّةُ بِالْإِثْمِ)

“And when it is said to him, “Fear Allāh”, he is led by arrogance to (more) crime.”

I.e. If this wicked one is admonished concerning his statements and actions, and it is said to him fear Allāh, and withdraw from your statement and action, and return to the truth, he refrains and rejects, and he is overtaken by vigor and anger sinfully, i.e. because of what he has from sins.

Blameworthy honour, is the honour of pride/arrogance.

(فَحَسْبُهُ جَهَنَّمُ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ)

“So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest!”

I.e. it is sufficient for him as a punishment for that.

(وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ)

“And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allāh.”

After dispraising the Hypocrites he mentioned the characteristics of the believers.

Ibn Abbās and other than him said: “It was revealed concerning Suhaib bin Sinān Ar-Rūmī, and that is when he became Muslim in Makkah and intended to migrate, the people prevented him from migrating with his wealth, and if he wanted to migrate while leaving his wealth then do so, so he left it and migrated and gave it to them, and it is narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said: “A profitable trade Suhaib! A profitable trade!”
The verse: Is specific to Suhaib general to every Mujāhid who sold himself for Allāh.

Concerning His statement;

(يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِين)

“O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islām and follow not the footsteps of Shaitān. Verily! He is to you a plain enemy.”

Allāh said ordering his believing slaves who believe in His Prophet ﷺ: To accept all the thresholds of Islam and it’s legislations, and acting by all commandments and abstaining from all prohibitions according to ones capability.

And His statement;

(ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ)

“Enter into As-Silm”

Ya’nī Al-Islām, and it is said obedience and there is no conflict between the two.

(كَافَّةً)

“Perfectly”

Altogether.

(وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ)

“and follow not the footsteps of Shaitān.”

I.e. do acts of obedience, and abstain from what Shaytān orders you with.

(إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِين)

“Verily! He is to you a plain enemy.”

Mutarrif said: “The most treacherous of the slaves of Allāh to the slaves of Allāh is the Shaytān.”

(مُّبِينٌ)

“Plain”

Open.

And His statement;

(فَإِن زَلَلْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ)

“Then if you slide back after the clear signs have come to you, then know that Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.”

I.e diverted away from the truth after it had been established upon you.

(زَلَلْ)

“Slide back”

I.e Rejecting the truth, intending mistake and not an unintentional mistake

His statement;

(فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ)

“Then know that Allāh is All-Mighty,

I.e in his ability to retribute, noone who flees can escape Him, and noone can overpower Him.

(حَكِيمٌ)

All-Wise.”

In His rulings and His rendering null and void and legalizing.

Qatādah and other than him said: “Mighty in His punishment Wise in His commandments.”

And Allāh is the granter of success.

Benefited from: Shaykh, the Allamah, the Trustworthy Advisor, Abu Abdirrahman Yahya bin Ali Al-Hajuri – may Allah preserve him

Source: https://t.me/sh_yahia_duroos/3086,
https://t.me/sh_yahia_duroos/3087

Translated by: Abu ‘Abdillāh ‘Omar bin Yahya Al-‘Akawi