Increase in Charity – Tafsīr Suratl-Baqarah by Ibn Kathīr


Concerning His statement;

أَيَوَدُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن تَكُونَ لَهُ جَنَّةٌ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَابٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ لَهُ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ وَأَصَابَهُ الْكِبَرُ وَلَهُ ذُرِّيَّةٌ ضُعَفَاءُ فَأَصَابَهَا إِعْصَارٌ فِيهِ نَارٌ فَاحْتَرَقَتْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُون

“Would any of you wish to have a garden with date-palms and vines, with rivers flowing underneath, and all kinds of fruits for him therein, while he is stricken with old age, and his children are weak (not able to look after themselves), then it is struck with a fiery whirlwind, so that it is burnt? Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses) to you that you may give thought.” [Al-Baqarah, 266]

▪️ The convenience of mentioning this verse is due to what is before it, that Allāh mentioned that spending in the cause of Allāh, is like a grain which grows seven ears, each ear having a hundred grains, and that which follows this is encouraging giving charity, and like the verse which has in it reminding of ones generosity and injury, would he like to be inflicted with this?

Bukhāri in the explanation of this verse said: Ibrāhīm narrated to us, he said Hishām informed us, on the authority of Ibn Juraij, he said I heard ‘Abdillāh bin Abi Mulaykah narrating on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbās, he said I heard his brother Abā Bakr bin Abi Mulaykah narrating on the authority of ‘Ubaid bin ‘Umayr, he said ‘Umar may Allāh be pleased with him said to the companions of the Prophet ﷺ: “Concerning whom do you think this verse was revealed?”

(أَيَوَدُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن تَكُونَ لَهُ جَنَّةٌ)

“Would any of you wish to have a garden”

They said: “Allāh knows best”, so ‘Umar became angry, and said: “Say we know or we don’t know”, so Ibn ‘Abbās said: “I have something with me concerning it is O Amīr ul-Mu’minīn”, he said: “O my cousin, speak and do not belittle yourself.” Ibn ‘Abbās said: “A parable was drawn concerning and action.” ‘Umar said: “Which action”, Ibn Abbās said: “An action”, ‘Umar said: “A rich man who acts with the obedience of Allāh then Allāh sent a Shaytān to him so he acts with the actions of disobedience until it consumed his (good) actions, so it severed it.”

Bukhāri said: “This Hadith is sufficient in explanation of this verse.”


“Whirlwind” (`I’sār)

(فِيهِ نَارٌ فَاحْتَرَقَت)

“Fiery so it burnt it”

i.e it burnt its produce and uprooted it’s trees, so what condition will his condition be?

(كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُون)

“Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses) to you that you may give thought.”

I.e. take a lesson from it and understand the parables and meaning and descend them upon their proper intent.

▪️ He mentioned date palm due to what it consist in it of sweetness and nutrient, for date palm and vines are the two queens of fruit, and highest (in quality) and what is lesser falls underneath it.

▪️ Water flows underneath it without any difficulty, and it didn’t mention that he brings water to it or is fatigued by irrigating it, a tearful sight is a man finding all what he owned turn to nothing.

▪️ He could be the most thriving in the beginning of his affair then shirk occurs it so it rids all what he was upon.

The nullifiers of actions
1 – Disbelief and Shirk.

(وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ أَعْمَٰلُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍۭ)

“As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert.” [An-Nur, 39]

(وَقَدِمْنَآ إِلَىٰ مَا عَمِلُوا۟ مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَٰهُ هَبَآءً مَّنثُورًا)

“And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust.” [Al-Furqān, 23]

2 – Reminding of ones generosity and injury.

(يَٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تُبْطِلُوا۟ صَدَقَٰتِكُم بِٱلْمَنِّ وَٱلْأَذَىٰ كَٱلَّذِى يُنفِقُ مَالَهُۥ رِئَآءَ ٱلنَّاسِۖ)

“O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men” [Al-Baqarah, 264]

▪️ Whirlwinds which nullify actions are many (Kufr – Shirk – Reminding Of Ones Generosity – Injury – Showing-Off)

▪️ Shirk and Kufr – Are total whirlwinds for all actions.

▪️ Reminding of ones generosity and injury are partial whirlwinds restricted to that specific action.

And Allāh is the granter of success.

Benefited from: Shaykh, the Allamah, the Trustworthy Advisor, Abu Abdirrahman Yahya bin Ali Al-Hajuri – may Allah preserve him

Translated by: Abu ‘Abdillāh ‘Omar bin Yahya Al-‘Akawi