Virtues of Sadaqah – Tafsīr Suratl-Baqarah by Ibn Kathīr


Benefit:

Concerning His statement;

إِن تُبْدُوا الصَّدَقَاتِ فَنِعِمَّا هِيَ ۖ وَإِن تُخْفُوهَا وَتُؤْتُوهَا الْفُقَرَاءَ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۚ وَيُكَفِّرُ عَنكُم مِّن سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِير ۞ لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُون ۞ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الَّذِينَ أُحْصِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ضَرْبًا فِي الْأَرْضِ يَحْسَبُهُمُ الْجَاهِلُ أَغْنِيَاءَ مِنَ التَّعَفُّفِ تَعْرِفُهُم بِسِيمَاهُمْ لَا يَسْأَلُونَ النَّاسَ إِلْحَافًا ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيما۞ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

“If you disclose your Sadaqat (alms-giving), it is well, but if you conceal it, and give it to the poor, that is better for you. (Allāh) will forgive you some of your sins. And Allāh is Well-Acquainted with what you do. Not upon you is their guidance, but Allāh guides whom He wills. And whatever you spend in good, it is for yourselves, when you spend not except seeking Allah’s Countenance. And whatever you spend in good, it will be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged. (Charity is) for Fuqara (the poor), who in Allah’s Cause are restricted (from travel), and cannot move about in the land (for trade or work). The one who knows them not, thinks that they are rich because of their modesty. You may know them by their mark, they do not beg of people at all. And whatever you spend in good, surely Allāh knows it well.” [Al-Baqarah, 271-74]

Here what’s prohibited is the guidance of Tawfīq.

(إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِى مَنْ أَحْبَبْتََ)

“Verily! You guide not whom you like” [Al-Qasas, 56]

As for the guidance of Dalālah then it is mandatory upon him and the Prophets.

Guidance is of two types:

1 – The guidance of Dalālah (leading to the path of guidance), it is established and the Prophets have been entrusted with it, and all those who posses knowledge.

(إِنْ عَلَيْكَ إِلَّا ٱلْبَلَٰغُۗ)

“Your duty is to convey (the Message).” [Ash-Shūrā, 48]

And it is mandatory, obligatory.

2 – The guidance of Tawfīq (being granted success to follow the path of guidance)

(إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِى مَنْ أَحْبَبْتََ)

“Verily! You guide not whom you like”

Directing towards the path of guidance is ongoing and Allāh grants success to whom He wills, and in it is the affirmation of the attribute of (Mashī’ah) will for Allāh, and those who say they are forced oppose the Book and the Sunnah.

نا سفيان عن الأعمش عن جعفر بن إياس عن سعيد بن جبير عن ابن عباس قال كانوا يكرهون أن يرضخوا لأنسابهم من المشركين فسألوا فرخص لهم فنزلت هذه الآية ليس عليك هداهم إلى قوله وأنتم لا تظلمون.

Al-Firyābi said in his Tafsīr: Sufyān informed us, on the authority of Al-A’mash on the authority of Ja’far bin ‘Iyyās on the authority of Sa’īd bin Jubayr on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbās he said: “They used to dislike giving to their relatives from the Mushrikīn so they asked concerning it, so it was granted to them so this verse was revealed;

لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَىٰهُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِأَنفُسِكُمْۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا ٱبْتِغَآءَ وَجْهِ ٱللَّهِۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ

“Not upon you is their guidance, but Allāh guides whom He wills. And whatever you spend in good, it is for yourselves, when you spend not except seeking Allāh’s Countenance. And whatever you spend in good, it will be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.” [Al-Baqarah, 272]

• Giving – Ar-Radhkh (الرضخ): يرضخوا Yardakhū

• This benefits that the close relative has a share, either to bring him closer, or connecting the ties of kinship.

Attracting those whose hearts incline towards Islam is of two types:

1 – Their Ēmān is weak, they are given to strengthen their Ēmān.
2 – Non Muslims, it could attract their hearts by it to accept Islam, specifically close relatives.

▪️ And this is concerning voluntary charity and not concerning those whom Zakāh is given.

Conclusion of the verse:
That giving charity to close relatives from the Mushrikīn is legislated, just as naming them in the will is legislated because they do not inherit.

ۚ (وَمَا تُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّه)ِ

“When you spend not except seeking Allah’s Countenance.”

It’s conclusion is that one giving charity if he gives charity seeking Allāh’s countenance then his reward is surely incumbent upon Allāh and at the same time it is not upon him whoever it reaches; a righteous or sinful or eligible or not, he is rewarded for his intent.

(ۚوَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ)

“And whatever you spend in good, it will be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.”

قال البخاري حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الزِّنَادِ ، عَنِ الْأَعْرَجِ ، عَن ْأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : قَالَ رَجُلٌ : لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ، فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدِ سَارِقٍ، فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ تُصُدِّقَ عَلَى سَارِقٍ، فَقَالَ : اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ، فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدَيْ زَانِيَةٍ، فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ : تُصُدِّقَ اللَّيْلَةَ عَلَى زَانِيَةٍ، فَقَالَ : اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى زَانِيَةٍ، لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدَيْ غَنِيٍّ، فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ : تُصُدِّقَ عَلَى غَنِيٍّ، فَقَالَ : اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى سَارِقٍ وَعَلَى زَانِيَةٍ وَعَلَى غَنِيٍّ، فَأُتِيَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ : أَمَّا صَدَقَتُكَ عَلَى سَارِقٍ فَلَعَلَّهُ أَنْ يَسْتَعِفَّ عَنْ سَرِقَتِهِ، وَأَمَّا الزَّانِيَةُ فَلَعَلَّهَا أَنْ تَسْتَعِفَّ عَنْ زِنَاهَا، وَأَمَّا الْغَنِيُّ فَلَعَلَّهُ يَعْتَبِرُ فَيُنْفِقُ مِمَّا أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ

Al-Bukhāri said: Abūl-Yamān narrated to us, he said Shu’ayb informed us, he said Abū Zinād narrated to us, on the authority of Al-A’raj, on the authority of Abi Hurairah may Allāh be pleased with him that the Messenger of Allāh said: “A man (from amongst the people before you) said: ‘Indeed! I will give in charity.’ So he took his Sadaqah out and placed it in a thief’s hand. In the morning the people were talking (about this incident) and saying: ‘Sadaqah was given to a thief last night.’ The man said: ‘O Allāh! Praise be to You. I have given Sadaqah to a thief. Indeed, I will give in charity!’ So he took his Sadaqah out and he placed it in a prostitute’s hand. In the morning the people were talking (about this incident) and saying: ‘Sadaqah was given to a prostitute last night.’ On hearing this, the man said: ‘Praise be to You, O Allāh! I gave Sadaqah to a prostitute. Indeed, I will give in charity!’ So he took his Sadaqah out and placed it in a rich man’s hand. In the morning the people were talking (about this incident) and saying: ‘Sadaqah was given to a rich man last night.’ The man said: ‘O Allāh! Praise be to You (for helping me) give charity to a thief, a prostitute and a rich man.’ Then he had a dream in which he was told that his Sadaqah to the thief might result in his refraining from his theft, his Sadaqah to the prostitute might help her abstain from her immorality, and his Sadaqah to the rich man might help him pay heed and spend from what Allāh had bestowed upon him.”

• The context of the Hadith points towards that it is voluntary Sadaqah and that he is not content except to put it in the hand of one whose eligible.

(لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الَّذِينَ أُحْصِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ)

“(Charity is) for Fuqara (the poor), who in Allah’s Cause are restricted (from travel)”

Ya’nī the migrants who joined Allāh and His Messenger ﷺ and lived in Madīnah, and they do not have the means to aquire what suffices them.

• Adh-Dharb (ضرب) in the land is travelling.

ِ (يَحْسَبُهُمُ الْجَاهِلُ أَغْنِيَاءَ مِنَ التَّعَفُّفِ)

“The one who knows them not, thinks that they are rich because of their modesty”

I.e. that the ignorant one thinks they are well-off, because of their modesty in dress and condition and speech.

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : “لَيْسَ الْمِسْكِينُ بِهَذَا الطَّوَّافِ الَّذِي يَطُوفُ عَلَى النَّاسِ، فَتَرُدُّهُ اللُّقْمَةُ وَاللُّقْمَتَانِ، وَالتَّمْرَةُ وَالتَّمْرَتَانِ “. قَالُوا : فَمَا الْمِسْكِينُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ؟ قَالَ : ” الَّذِي لَا يَجِدُ غِنًى يُغْنِيهِ، وَلَا يُفْطَنُ لَه فَيُتَصَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَا يَسْأَلُ النَّاسَ شَيْئًا

On the authority of Abī Hurairah that the Prophet ﷺ said: “The Miskīn is not the one who goes from door to door being turned away by a date or two”, They said: “Then who is the Miskīn O Messenger of Allāh?” He said: “The true Miskīn is the one who does not have enough to live upon, and neither from his appearance does it occurs that he is needy and should be given Sadaqah, nor does he ask the people for anything.”

(تَعْرِفُهُم بِسِيمَاهُم)ْ

“You may know them by their mark”

I.e. due to what is apparent to the people of insight from their traits.

(لَا يَسْأَلُونَ النَّاسَ إِلْحَافًا)

“They do not beg of people at all.”

I.e. They do not beg and burden the people with what they are not in need of, and if he asks while he has what suffices him from asking, then he has begged.

(وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيم)

“And whatever you spend in good, surely Allah knows it well.”

I.e. nothing is hidden from Him, He will recompense for it a full recompensing, and most complete, on the Day of Judgement, the most needy a person is of it.

And His statement;

(الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ)

“Those who spend their wealth (in Allāh’s Cause) by night and day, in secret and in public, they shall have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” [Al-Baqarah, 274]

▪️ This is a praise from Him to those that spend in His cause, and seeking His countenance at all times, day and night, in open and in secret, even spending on the family enters into that.

عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الْبَدْرِيِّ ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ : إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمَ إِذَا أَنْفَقَ عَلَى أَهْلِهِ نَفَقَةً وَهُوَ يَحْتَسِبُهَا كَانَتْ لَهُ صَدَقَةً

• On the authority of Abī Mas’ūd Al-Badrī, on the authority of the Prophet ﷺ, he said: “Indeed a Muslim if he spends on his family seeking by it reward, it is Sadaqah for him.”

Benefited from: Shaykh, the Allamah, the Trustworthy Advisor, Abu Abdirrahman Yahya bin Ali Al-Hajuri – may Allah preserve him

Source: https://t.me/sh_yahia_duroos/3167,
https://t.me/sh_yahia_duroos/3168

Translated by: Abu ‘Abdillāh ‘Omar bin Yahya Al-‘Akawi