Concerning His statement;
الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُون
“Those who eat Ribā (usury) will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaitān leading him to insanity. That is because they say: “Trading is only like Riba (usury),” whereas Allāh has permitted trading and forbidden Ribā (usury). So whosoever receives an admonition from his Lord and stops eating Ribā (usury) shall not be punished for the past; his case is for Allah (to judge); but whoever returns [to Ribā (usury)], such are the dwellers of the Fire – they will abide therein.” [Al-Baqarah, 275]
Ar-Ribā is taking the wealth of the people wrongfully.
▪️ It is from the major sins
I.e. they deal with it whether it be by eating from it or riding from it or dressing from it
• Whoever consumes it knowingly is cursed.
(لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ)
“Will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaitan (Satan) leading him to insanity.”
I.e. They will not stand from their graves on the Day of Resurrection except as the epileptic one stands while in his state of epilepsy and the Shaytān beating him; and that is that he will be standing a repudiated standing.
وقال ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما : (آكل الربا يبعث يوم القيامة مجنونا يخنق)
Ibn Abbās may Allāh be pleased with him said: “The one who consumes Ribā will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection like an insane person choking.”
(قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا)
“Trading is only like Riba (usury),”
The context of this verse is that they are the disbelievers (who said this) by consensus, for the Muslims are above this, for they do not make equal the truth and falsehood, and they do not make impermissible what Allāh made permissible nor do they make permissible what Allāh made impermissible.
• Like the one who says what is the difference between Zinā (fornication) and marriage, verily they allowed it due to their objection to the rulings of Allāh in His legislation.
▪️ In the Dunyā he will not stand, and if he stands he will not be balanced, and in the Ākhirah he will move unsteadily.
(وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا)
“Whereas Allāh has permitted trading and forbidden Ribā (usury)”
It is possible that this is a response to them due to what they said in objection.
(فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ) ۖ
“So whosoever receives an admonition from his Lord and stops eating Ribā (usury) shall not be punished for the past and his case is for Allāh (to judge)”
Whoever the prohibition of Ribā reaches and so he refrains then he shall not be punished for the past dealings.
وكما قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم فتح مكة : *《وكل ربا في الجاهلية موضوع تحت قدمي هاتين، وأول ربا أضع ربا العباس》
As the Prophet ﷺ said: “All Ribā of Jāhiliyyah is abolished underneath my two feet and the first Ribā I abolish is the Ribā of Al-Abbās.”
And he didn’t order them to return the increase they took in Jāhiliyyah.
“But whoever returns”
I.e. to making Ribā permissible after the prohibition of Allāh has reached him.
▪️ And likewise they prohibited the means to reaching it, for the means to harām is harām, and the means to a wājib is wājib, and the means to a recommended act is recommended.
▪️ And verily Al-Mukhābarah was prohibited and it is also Muzāra’ah with some of what the earth produces, and Muzābanah, and it is buying dry dates still on the tree for wet dates on the ground, and Muhāqalah, and it is buying the grain in it’s ear on the field for the grain on the ground, and verily these things and the likes thereof were prohibited to terminate the Ribā, because the equality between the two things is not known before drying of the dates.
And for this reason the Fuqahā (jurists) said: “Ignorance of equality is like actual surplus.”
And it takes the ruling of Ribā due to the ignorance in it, for it’s weight differs after it dries, and he didn’t grant concession except in Arāyā with a Kharīf (which is 5 awsuq).
وقد ثبت في الصحيحين عن النُّعْمَانَ بْنَ بَشِيرٍ قال سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ : ” إِنَّ الْحَلَالَ بَيِّنٌ وَالْحَرَامَ بَيِّنٌ، وَبَيْنَهُمَا مُشَبَّهَاتٌ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا كَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ، فَمَنِ اتَّقَى الشُّبُهَاتِ اسْتَبْرَأَ فِيهِ لِدِينِهِ وَعِرْضِهِ، وَمَنْ وَاقَعَهَا وَاقَعَ الْحَرَامَ، كَالرَّاعِي يَرْعَى حَوْلَ الْحِمَى، يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَرْتَعَ فِيهِ.
And indeed it has been established in the two Sahīhs on the authority of Nu’mān bin Bashīr, he said: “I heard the Prophet ﷺ saying: “Verily the lawful is clear and the unlawful is clear, and between that are matters that are doubtful (not clear); many of the people do not know of them. So whoever leaves it to protect his religion and his honour, then he will be safe, and whoever falls into something from them, then he soon will have fallen into the unlawful. Just like if someone grazes (his animals) around a sanctuary, he would soon wind up in it.”
Benefited from: Shaykh, the Allamah, the Trustworthy Advisor, Abu Abdirrahman Yahya bin Ali Al-Hajuri – may Allah preserve him
Translated by: Abu ‘Abdillāh ‘Omar bin Yahya Al-‘Akawi