A woman did not fast the previous Ramadhān because she was pregnant and fears that she will not be able to fast Ramadhān this year because she is breastfeeding, what is upon her?
If Ramadhān reaches her whilst she is breastfeeding and unable to fast, she delays (fasting) this second Ramadhān then makes up the first and second after that and there is no kafāra (expiation) upon her.
فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أيَّامٍ ُخَرَۚ
So whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then an equal number of days [are to be made up].
And she is (included) in the ruling of the sick. The breastfeeding and pregnant are (included) in the ruling of the sick.
So if she was unable to fast the last Ramadhān, it came whilst she was pregnant then while she is breastfeeding the following Ramadhān arrives and she is in the (same) situation as before (i.e. unable to fast) due to breastfeeding and she is in need of food to produce breast milk, then there is nothing wrong with delaying this present (Ramadhān) and fasting the past and this present one that she has missed afterwards in order.
Is the expiation (obligatory) upon her? A group of the scholars, see the ‘kafāra’ (expiation) as well as making it up (to be upon her) but there is no evidence for it. Allāh (سبحانه وتعالى) did not mention except that an equal number of days [are to be made up] and did not add to that.
Narrations have been reported from The Salaf, from Ibn ‘Umar and other than him that upon her is the kafāra – i.e. feeding a poor person each day (she missed) – and to make it up.
Answered by: Shaykh Abū Bilāl – may Allāh preserve him
Answered on: 11th Rajab 1442 (23rd February 2021)
Translated by: Abū Sufyān Sāmi ibn Daniel Al-Ghāni