What’s the reconciliation between the statement of Allah, the Most High:
(وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ حَسَنَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِكَ ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ)
“And if some good reaches them, they say, “This is from Allah,” but if some evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you (O Muhammad ﷺ).” Say: “All things are from Allah”. [An-Nisā:78]
And the statement of Allah, the Most High:
(مَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِنْ نَفْسِكَ وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا)
“Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself. And We have sent you (O Muhammad ﷺ) as a Messenger to mankind, and Allah is Sufficient as a Witness.”
Before this it is a must that two affairs are differentiated.
That there is a differentiation between:
al-Fi’il (the action of Allah) and
al-Maf’ūl (what occurres from that action).
al-Qaḍhā (decree of Allah) and
al-Maqḍhī (what has been decreed).
al-Qadr (the predecree of Allah) and
al-Maqdūr (something which has been predecreed).
It is a must that there is a differentiation between these two affairs.
So al-Fi’il (an action), i.e the action of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, nothing but that which is proper, and that which is good is attributed to it.
As for the al-Maf’ūlat (pl. for Maf’ūl) of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, good is attributed to it and likewise evil.
The action of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic does not occur except due to a wisdom for it, that’s why the Prophet ﷺ said:
《والشر ليس إليك》
“And evil is not attributed to you”
So the attribution for example the creation of the Shaytān to Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, then know that this was not in vain.
Allah, the Most High, created him for good reason out of His wisdom, which is the bad becoming distinct from good, the person of the truth from the person of falsehood.
But evil is only in the Maf’ūl i.e the creation, (in the example here) the Shaytān.
This is the conclusionary summary in the topic of the differentiation between the al-Fi’il and the al-Maf’ūl, between al-Qaḍhā and al-Maqḍhī.
What is attributed to Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, is only good.
Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, said:
(وَٱللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ)
“While Allah has created you and what you do!”
And a person can do good and he can do bad.
And Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, said:
(ٱللَّهُ خَٰلِقُ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ)
“Allah is the Creator of all things”
And from it is the creation of evil, the point of reference and benefit is that Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, created the good and bad, but is evil attributed to him from the angle of that which He created or that which He did?
Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not do except that which is good, rather this evil only from the al-Maf’ūl i.e the creation.
Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, created the Shaytān, and created the disbeliever, He created them out of Wisdom.
(ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلْمَوْتَ وَٱلْحَيَوٰةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا)
“Who has created death and life, that He may test you which of you is best in deed.”
(أَحَسِبَ ٱلنَّاسُ أَن يُتْرَكُوٓا۟ أَن يَقُولُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا وَهُمْ لَا يُفْتَنُونَ)
“Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: “We believe,” and will not be tested.”
(يَمِيزَ ٱلْخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ)
“until He distinguishes the wicked from the good”
This is due to a great wisdom of His, Exalted is He, and evil is not attributed to the actions of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, but the evil is attributed to the creation.
Shaykh Abu Hatim Yusuf Al-‘Inaabi Al-Jazaa’iree – may Allah preserve him.
Abu ‘Abdirrahman ‘Abdullaah bin Ahmed Ash-Shingaani