It’s wordings from some of the narrators which are attached to the (Prophetic) text, it doesn’t become clear to the listener except that it is part of the Hadith. And there is evidence that points towards that it is the words of the narrator.
Like for the Hadith to come from other routes with wordings that separate this from that. And this is a speculative way. So if it is weak, we take a middle stance, or we deem to be correct that it’s from the Prophetic text. And Idraaj is further from being in the middle of the text, as if one said:
مَن مَسَّ أُنْثَيْيِه وذكَرَهُ فلْيتوضأ
“Whoever touches his ears and his private part then let him perform wudhu.”
And Al-Khateeb has authored authorings, and alot of them are not given to him that it is Idraaj.
(21) Alfaadhul-Adaa’ (The wordings of delivering a Hadith)
So (حدثنا) Haddathanaa – ‘Narrated to us’ and (سمعت) Sami’tu – ‘I heard’ is for what is heard from the speech of the Shaykh. And it’s agreed upon that (حدثني) Haddathanee – ‘Narrated to me’ is from what you heard from him by yourself, and (حدثنا) Haddathanaa – ‘Narrated to us’ is what you heard from him with others present. And some of them permit (حدثنا) Haddathanaa – ‘Narrated to us’ in what was read to the Shaykh.
As for (أخبرنا) Akhbaranaa – ‘Informed us’, then it’s justified for what is heard from the speech of the Shaykh, or what he read, or another read it to the Shaykh while he was listening. So the wording of (إخبار) ‘Ikhbaar’ – ‘Informing’ is more general than (تحديث) ‘Tahdeeth’ – ‘Narrating’. And (أخبرني) Akhbaranee – ‘Informed me’ is for the individual, and the Muhaqqiqoon – Like Maalik and Al-Bukhaari – made equal (حدثنا) Haddathanaa – ‘Narrated to us’ and (أخبرنا) Akhbaranaa – ‘Informed us’ and (سمعت) Sami’tu – ‘I heard’, and there is flexibility in the affair.
As for (أنبأنا) Anba’anaa – ‘Relayed to us’ and (أنا) also, but it became widespread in the custom of the later comers for Al-Ijaazah (Granting Permission). And His statement;
(قَالَتْ مَنْ أَنۢبَأَكَ هَٰذَاۖ قَالَ نَبَّأَنِىَ ٱلْعَلِيمُ ٱلْخَبِيرُ)
“She said: “Who told you this?” He said: “The All-Knower, the All-Aware (Allah) has told me”. [At-Tahrim, 3]
Points towards the equivalence between them. So (الحديث) and (الخبر) and (النبأ) are synonyms. As for the Maghribis (Andalusians) then they pronounce (أخبرنا) Akhbaranaa – ‘Informed us’ for what is an (الإجازة) ‘Ijaazah’ – ‘Granting Permission’, even some of them pronounce in (الإجازة) ‘Ijaazah’ – ‘Granting Permission’ (حدثنا) Haddathanaa – ‘Narrated to us’. And this is Tadlees. And from them are those who considered (قال لنا) Qaal Lanaa – ‘He said to us’ (الإجازة) Ijaazah – ‘Granting Permission’ and (مناولة) Munaawalah – ‘Handing over’.
And from Tadlees is for the Muhaddith to narrate from the Shaikh which he heard from (generally), things that he didn’t hear: (قرئ على فلان) ‘Quri’ ‘Ala Fulaan’ – It was read to so and so: (أخبرك فلان) Akhbaraka Fulaan – So and so informed you.’ So perhaps they will do this.
Ad-Daaraqutni says: (قرئ على أبي القاسم البغوي)’Quri’ ‘Ala Abil-Qaasim Al-Baghawi’ – It was read to Abil-Qaasim Al-Baghawi: (أخبرك فلان) Akhbaraka Fulaan’ – So and so informed you.’ And Abu Nu’aym says: (قرئ على عبدالله بن جعفر بن فارس) ‘Quri’ ‘Ala Abdillaah bin Ja’far bin Faaris – It was read to Abdillaah bin Ja’far bin Faaris: Haarun bin Sulaymaan narrated to us. And from that (أخبرنا فلان من كتابه) ‘Akhbaranaa Fulaan min Kitaabih – So and so narrated to us from his book’, and (رأيت ابن مسيب يفعله) ‘Ra’aytu Ibn Musayyib yaf’aluhu – I saw Ibn Musayyib doing it! And this is not befitting, for indeed it’s Tadlees, and what is correct is your statement: (في كتابه) ‘Fi Kitaabih’ – In his book.
And from Tadlees is that a child was present with the Shaykh, and he was 2 or 3 yrs old, so he says: (أنبأنا فلان) ‘Anba’anaa Fulaan’ – So and so relayed to us, and he doesn’t say: (و أنا حاضر) ‘Wa Ana Haadhirun’ – While I was present. So this being present without the giving of permission of one being read to doesn’t benefit connection, rather it’s less than Al-Ijaazah, for indeed Al-Ijaazah is a type of connection with the Imaams.
And the presence of a 1 or 2 yr old, if it’s not accompanied with an Ijaazah, is like nothing, except if his being present with the Shaykh Haafidh or Muhaddith and he understands what he’s narrating to him, so his agreeing by writing the name of the child is the level of giving permission from him to narrate.
And from the ways of delivering: ‘Hajjaaj bin Muhammad narrated to us, he said: Ibn Jurayj said:’ For the wording (قال) ‘Qaal’ – He said doesn’t point towards connection.
And it has been overlooked for the Sahaabah, like the statement of a Sahaabee: ‘The Messenger of Allaah ﷺ said’: So it takes the ruling of being connected, if it’s from someone who it is certain that he heard from the Messenger of Allaah ﷺ. So if he didn’t have except the mere seeing of him, then his statement: ‘The Messenger of Allaah ﷺ’ is taken to be Mursal. Like Mahmood bin Ar-Rabee’, and Abi Umaamah bin Sahl, and Abi At-Tufail, and Marwaan.
And Likewise (قال) ‘Qaal’ – ‘He said’ from a Taabi’ee known for meeting that Sahaabee, like the statement of ‘Urwah: ‘Aa’ishah said’, and the statement of Ibn Sireen: ‘Abu Hurairah said’. Then it takes the ruling of being connected.
And what is higher than the word (قال) ‘Qaal’ – He said: Is the word (عن) ‘An – From. And what is higher than (عن) ‘An – From: Is (أخبرنا) ‘Akhbaranaa’ – Informed us, and (ذكر لنا) ‘Dhakara Lanaa’ – Mentioned to us, and (أنبأنا) ‘Anba’anaa’ – Relayed to us. And higher than this: Is (حدثنا) ‘Haddathanaa’ – Narrated to us, and (سمعت) ‘Sami’tu’ – I heard. As for in the terminology of the later ones, concerning (أنبأنا) ‘Anba’anaa’ – Relayed to us, and (عن) ‘An – From, and (كتب إلينا) ‘Kataba Ilaynaa’ – Wrote to us: Are the same..
Benefited from: Shaykh, the Allamah, the Trustworthy Advisor, Abu Abdirrahman Yahya bin Ali Al-Hajuri – may Allah preserve him.
Translated by: Abū ‘Abdillāh ‘Omar bin Yahya Al-‘Akawi