A brother asks: “I am little confused with things related to Al-Qadar (divine pre-decreed affairs). My question is whether Al-Qadar destined by Allāh changes or not?
The Prophet Ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam said, “The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried.” and, “One of you may do the deeds of the people of Paradise until there is nothing between him and it but a cubit, then the decree overtakes him and he does a deed of the people of Hell and enters it.”
At the same time there are also evidences found which seem to point that it changes like “Allāh blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book.” & “Nothing can change the Divine decree except Duʿā.” & “Whoever wants his lifespan to be extended should keep ties of kinship” and the likes.
So what should be the correct aqīdah of the Muslim Salafi regarding Al-Qadar and how should these evidences be understood?
 Narrated and classified as Ṣahīh by al-Tirmidhī (2516), from the Ḥadīth of Ibn ʿAbbās
 Al-Qurʿān – 13:39
 Narrated by Aḥmad, 5/677; Ibn Mājah, 90; al-Tirmidhī, 139. Classified as Ḥasan by al-Albānī in Ṣahīh al-Jāmiʿ)
 Agreed Upon
That which Allāh has written and ordained in al-Lawḥ al-Maḥfūdh (The Preserved Tablet) can never change the pens have lifted and the pages have dried.
As for the other evidence which maybe understood from it that the Qadar can change then it is a must that these evidence be returned and interpreted in accordance to the clear evidence shown that the Qadar will never change. Because the evidence of the kitāb and the authentic sunnah can never clash nor contradict.
As for the meaning of the Ḥadīth of the increasing of the life span for the one who maintains ties of kinship; then Imām An-Nawawī has explained: “The scholars have answered with a number of answers, the best of them being that the meaning of this increase is only by way of Barakah and blessing, by giving success in looking after his time and being guardful over his time and with that which benefits in the hereafter and refraining from wasting his lifespan.” Explanation of Saḥīh Muslim.
As for the ḥadīth that the duʿā changes the decree; then the people of knowledge have explained that this duʿā is from the decree itself, so Allāh knew that this slave was going to make this duʿā in the dunyā to bring him good or repel from him evil and all of this is from the decree.
As for the Quranic verse which says Allāh wipes out that which He wishes and affirms that which He wishes, some of the people of tafsīr have said that this changing and wiping out is in regards to the rulings and the aḥkām of the religion from the Nāsikh and Mansūkh, i.e. Allāh leaves firm in place some rulings and he abrogates other rulings and puts in place another hukm (ruling). See Niʿmatul-Mannān.
As Allāh says;
مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Whichever a verse (revelation) we abrogate or cause to forgotten, we bring better one or similar to it, do you not know that Allāh is able to do all things?
And this is all done by the wisdom of Allāh, the Most Wise and He has with Him Ummul-Kitāb, the original book (al-Lawḥ al-Maḥfūdh) which can never change.
The aqīdah of the muslim in the decree of Allāh, and in all the aspects of aqīdah should be in accordance to the kitāb and sunnah upon the understanding of salafuṣ-Ṣāliḥ.
وعَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ ب قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ ﷺ يَقُولُ: «كَتَبَ اللهُ مَقَادِيرَ الخَلاَئِقِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بِخَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ ‑قَالَ‑ وَعَرْشُهُ عَلَى الْـمَاءِ» مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيهِ.
Narrated ʿAbdullāh bin ʿAmr bin al-ʿAāṣ raḍiyAllāhu ʿanhumā, I heard The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ say: “Allāh wrote the decree of the creation before creating the heavens and the earth by fifty thousand years.” He (ﷺ) said: “And His (Allāh’s) throne is above water.” Agreed upon
Also it is not advised to ponder too deep into the affair of Qadar (how is this and how is that, and why like that and so on), rather it is upon the Muslim to submit and adhere to the evidences of the kitāb and sunnah and put the doubts of Shayṭān to a side. Imām aṭ-Ṭaḥāwī mentions that the Qadar is the secret of Allāh in his creation, the one who delves into it will be led astray.
Subḥānallāh, how many people did Shayṭān lead to the fire due to the doubts he whispered in the chests about the Qadar. So the best cure is submission.
آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ ۚ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ
The Messenger (Muhammad ﷺ) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allāh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers” – and they say, “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all).”
Allāh ʿAzza wa Jalla knows best.
والحمد لله رب العلمين
Answered by: Abū Hārūn Muḥammad ʿAbdin-Nūr
Some fatāwā regarding Supplication changing the Qadar:
Fatwa of Ibn Bāz:
Fatwa of the Permanent Committee: