Al-Hajjāj bin Yusuf and Rebelling against the Ruler


Al-Hajjāj bin Yusuf is a tyrant oppressor, shedder of blood, arrogant dictator, and clarifying the nakārah (disavowal) of the Hadith

(أخرج متاعك)

“Take your belongings out.”

Which the revolters use as proof.

Our Shaykh Yahya may Allāh preserve him said: “Anas bin Mālik may Allāh be pleased with him was given a long life because the Prophet ﷺ made duā for him with long life and plenty of wealth, so his life extended and his wealth and children by the prophetic duā, and he was the last of the Sahābah to die in Basrah may Allāh be pleased with them all.

And this was in Hijāz when Hajjāj commenced as Amīr over Hijāz from Abdl-Malik bin Marwān, and Al-Hajjāj bin Yusuf was a tyrant oppressor, shedder of blood, arrogant dictator, and he used to harm Anas bin Mālik specifically, and he murdered numerous scholars, and the last of whom he killed was Sa’īd bin Jubayr may Allāh have mercy on him.

And a party he killed and a party he drove out, and he drove a people out considering that they fled from him. They fled from him and hid, perhaps you have read the book ‘Al-Mutwārīn min Al-Hajjāj’, so when his condition was like that he didn’t care even with what happened in the Haram, so when he besieged Makkah to fight Abdullah bin Az-Zubair, he did not have war’ (cautionary fear of what could harm in the next life) from what occurred from the launching the catapult at the Ka’bah, even when some damages and cracks occurred to it, having said that the scholars differed concerning his condition.

So from them are those who declared him to be a disbeliever, and from them are those who didn’t declare him a disbeliever and considered him an oppressive Muslim. This latter position is what is more correct, for he used to pray and lead the people, even if he used to direct enmity towards Āl-Bayt (the Prophetic household).

During that time there was severe enmity between Banī Marwān and other than them from Banī Al-Abbās and other than that, and he was from those who use to direct enmity to Āl-Bayt, and Allāh prohibited that, in the Hadithl-Qudsī:

من عادى لي ولياً فقد آذنته بالحرب

“Whoever shows enmity to a waliy of mine I declare war on him.”

Whether from Āl-Bayt or from other than them, so every Shi’ī (Shiite) is a Nāsibī because he directs enmity towards the Sahābah except a few from Āl-Bayt, and not every Nāsibī is a Shi’ī, because verily Al-Hajjāj used to direct enmity towards Āl-Bayt but he wasn’t a Shi’ī, and the reason for that was the affairs of the King.

So there occured from Al-Hajjāj because of this great oppression upon the Mulsims, until they came complaining to Anas bin Mālik – may Allāh be pleased with him – the companion of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ, and complaining about the ruler within it’s limits is permissible or from an oppression or other than that, even complaining to the doctor about a sickness;

فقد جاء في الحديث عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فقالت عائشة: وارأساه قال: ” بل أنا يا عائشة وارأساه

For it has come in the Hadith on the authority of the Prophet ﷺ, Ā’ishah said:

“Oh my head! (hurts)” So the Prophet ﷺ said: “Rather I say Oh my head! O Ā’ishah.”

As for complaining with the intent of inciting anger, and the intent of challenging Allāh from a sickness or an event or other than that, then this is what is not allowed.

So they complained to Anas, even though he had no capability to repel what occurred to them from Al-Hajjāj, but the custom of the people is that they complain to one who has the ability to repel that from him and whoever is not able, then even if it be by a righteous duā Allāh repels by it evil and harm.

So they complained to him what they met from Al-Hajjāj of oppression whether it was by killing or other than that, and a lot of the scholars there was no justification to killing them.

This and Allāh knows best that it occurred during the time of Ibn Al-Ash’ath that some of them perhaps gave a Fatwa on certain issues so it angered Al-Hajjāj and he subdued them because of this.

He even used to say verily I believe that whoever I ordered to exit from this door and he exited from that (another) door, it is allowed for me to kill him from the aspect that he disobeyed the ruler.

So when they complained about him (to Anas) he didn’t say rebel against him or demonstrate or resist or any of these recent things from the enemies of Islam. They brought it to the Muslim. It has no origin amongst the Salaf, may Allāh be pleased with them.

And that which those ones use as proof that Hamzah had a march, and so and so came out and he had a march, this story is not authentic, ya’nī that they demonstrated in Makkah, and what they use as proof also when the Mushrikīn transgressed against the Prophet ﷺ and the companions.

And what they use as proof for strikes that the Prophet said ﷺ to the man whose neighbor was harming him that he said: “Resist against them.” I.e. seek protection from them, with this meaning, this as far as the chain of narration goes as it is known it is via Abdillāh bin Muhammad bin Aqīl, he is weak, and as far as the text it is in the epitome of nakārah (disavowal).

For verily the Prophet ﷺ was the pinnacle of people in justice, and he didn’t used to order them to put their things outside and leave their house when their neighbor was harming them and not treating them equally.

It wouldn’t have been just to the oppressed, and the angle of nakārah (disavowal) in this text is that the Prophet ﷺ ordered him to leave his house and go out in the street, and he has more right to (remain in) his house, and if there was an order for being patient it could of been possible, and Allāh has ordered with patience and the Prophet of Allāh ﷺ used to order with patience.

As for ordering to put ones belongings outside in the street in order for the people to pass by and say what is wrong with you and you say my neighbor is harming me so they say may Allāh curse your neighbor, then this story’s chain of narration is weak and it’s text is munkar (rejected), this Hadith even if some of the people of knowledge declare it Hasan.

And upon it being authentic there is no proof in it, for this is one person, as for them they block the roads and prevent bystanders passage and break doors and cars and harm the Muslims. As for this oppressed one he doesn’t harm anyone, but as you heard the Hadith is not authentic.

Verily we intended from that that Al-Hajjāj when they (people) complained to Anas he didn’t incite them to rebel against him and encouraged them with patience, and this is their custom may Allāh be pleased with them which the proofs came with;

اصبروا حتى تلقوني على الحوض

“Be patient until you meet me at the Hawdh (fountain Al-Kawthar).”

يكونوا علينا أمراء يأخذون حقنا ويمنعون ماهو لنا، قال: ” ستكون عليكم أثرة فاصبروا حتى تلقوني على الحوض اسألوا الله الذي لكم وأدوا الحق الذي عليكم

“There will be rulers over us who will take our rights (upon them) and prevent us from what is due to us, he said: “There will be discord so be patient until you meet me at the Hawdh, ask Allāh for your rights and fulfil the rights due upon you.”

اسمع وأطع وإن ضرب ظهرك وأخذ مالك

“Hear and obey, even if he hits your back and takes your wealth.”

اسمعوا وأطيعوا وإن تأمر عليكم عبد حبشي كان رأسه زبيبه

“Hear and obey even if an abyssinian slave was over you and his head was like a raisan.”

Whether he be a Quraishī or non Quraishī due to this Hadith, as long as he has assumed dominance then patience is endured until you are relieved from this wicked one if he is an oppressor.

This is what they used to advise with, and in that is great barakah upon society, and safety from fitan, Shaykh Ul-Islām said:

ما خرج قوم على ولي أمرهم إلا كان آخر أمرهم أسوأ من أمرهم قبل

“A people did not rebel against their ruler except that their end affair was worse than their affair before.”

I.e. While they are rebelling so the affairs become severe for them and their condition becomes worse, blood is shed, roads are blocked, and lives are taken, women are widowed, children become orphans, the enemies of Allāh become avid, the hypocrites increase, also good is squandered.

None can count the harms except Allāh, so the rulers whether righteous or sinful in them remaining, is good. Through them the streets are safe, the legal punishments are implemented, general benefits occurs to the Muslims, the symbols of Islam are established, the borders of the lands are protected, and they maintain their standing and rule, and other than that of the good.

Be patient for verily there will not come to you a time except that after it is worse. He encouraged them with patience, then he said to them with the meaning, if you do that it doesn’t mean that your condition will become good and this is the content of what Shaykh Ul-Islām used as evidence. Rather it will be worse after that from that which you are in and this speech of Shaykh Ul-Islām’s basis is this Hadith. He said be patient. A time will not come to you except after it is worse than it.

As it is said I admonished Sa’d then when I tried another people I missed him and cried over him.

Benefited from: Shaykh, the Allamah, the Trustworthy Advisor, Abu Abdirrahman Yahya bin Ali Al-Hajuri – may Allah preserve him.


Translated by: Abu ‘Abdillāh ‘Omar bin Yahya Al-‘Akawi